The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's 3 December 1971 preemptive strike on 11 Indian airbases.Lasting just 13 days it is considered one of the shortest wars in history.
During the course of the war, Indian and Pakistani forces clashed on the eastern and western fronts. The war effectively came to an end after the Eastern Command of the Pakistani Armed Forces signed the Instrument of Surrender,on 16 December 1971 following which East Pakistan seceded as the independent state of Bangladesh. Between 90,000 and 93,000 members of the Pakistan Armed Forces including paramilitary personnel were taken as Prisoners of War by the Indian Army It is estimated that between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 civilians were killed in Bangladesh, and up to four hundred thousand women raped by the Pakistani armed forces,especially Bengali Hindus.As a result of the conflict, a further eight to ten million people fled the country at the time to seek refuge in neighbouring India.